Squirrels need conservation as they are essential for the environment due to low redundancy in their functions. Many living things can affect the functionality of an ecosystem and play a key role in keeping an environment in a balanced condition.
Are Squirrels Keystone Species? Squirrels are keystone species as they help improve plant growth by providing essential nutrients through fungi growing in the soil. Moreover, it helps in the survival of truffles by spreading their spores, planting seeds, and becoming a food source for predator birds and animals.
Moreover, they feed on small animals and plants and provide food to larger organisms to keep their population in control and provide energy for survival.
What are keystone species?
Keystone species refers to a particular species having a high impact on the ecosystem and playing a vital role in the environment.
Accordingly, it can lead to a drastic change in the habitat and disturb the overall structure after getting removed. In addition, they control particular functions, and others cannot replace these organisms.
It is challenging to identify the keystone species as you can check its importance by removing it for a short time and observing the changes due to its absence.
Moreover, it is like a predator-prey relationship when the predators try to prevent animals from eating plant species by consuming them as food.
Such predators can be the keystone species as they stop herbivorous animals from destroying the population of plant species in the ecosystem.
Furthermore, it is not possible ethically to remove any organism, but you can determine the food chains and their lifestyle to know about their role in an ecosystem.
Why are squirrels keystone species?
The keystone species have low functional redundancy means no other organism can take their place in the ecosystem, and the gap remains in their absence.
Accordingly, squirrels are also vital organisms as they are nature’s gardeners, promote flora’s growth, and provide food to fauna.
Planting of seeds
They help spread plant seeds in areas far from the parent plant from which the seeds are taken. Then, they pick up the seeds to consume as food and hide them under the soil to use in winter.
Moreover, the seeds can sometimes germinate when they are viable if they are kept for an ideal duration in better conditions.
A few of the stored seeds can grow and become an adult plant as these furry animals can destroy the seed structure while carrying it to the nest that can only be used for eating.
In addition, these furry animals help shape the composition of plants as they dig soil, put the collected seeds in the ground, and cover them with soil again.
They forget the exact location where they have hidden seeds resulting in the germination and production of a plant.
Food source for predators
The squirrels are not only getting food from the environment by targeting natural sources like fruits and seeds, but they are also the prey of a few omnivorous animals and larger birds.
It is a part of the food web where one organism eats another organism that carries a lower rank in the chain or consumes other organisms.
They play a significant role in the food chain as they are preyed on by avian species like hawks and owls.
In the same way, mammalians also obtain nutrition from these furry animals like grey wolves, red foxes, snakes, etc. The weasels, raccoons, coyotes, and lynx are also natural predators of squirrels.
These predator animals began to chase the fast-running animals and make efforts to catch them through bushes and large trees.
Furthermore, cats and dogs can also attack squirrels if they are present in domestic areas like the garden and backyard of the house.
Survival of truffles
It is easy for mushroom spores to spread in the air as they are present on the ground and extended a few inches higher on the ground surface.
Moreover, it is difficult for truffle spores to spread through the air as they are present underground and grow there; that’s why they depend on animals, particularly rodents.
Accordingly, the rodents can spread their spores and transfer them to the host plants. They dig the soil in the ground to reach the fungi buried inside the ground and hide their seeds.
During this process, they usually feed on the buried fungi and poop their spores out on the forest floor.
In addition, the truffles develop a positive relationship with the trees as these fungi are present close to their roots.
So, the spread of truffle spores is not possible without these furry animals having sharp claws, as if they can dig deep in the soil.
They can determine the health condition of the ecosystem in forests, whether it is in good condition or facing a loss on a large scale.
The number of tree squirrels in the forest gives an idea of the forest ecosystem as there will be fewer furry animals on trees if the trees do not provide an ideal environment for them to live in.
Accordingly, their demographic data is used as an indicator to know about the forest condition. In addition, it helps understand the reasons for poor forest health, like changes in climatic conditions.
In addition, global warming, extensive fires, logging, and other related events severely affect forest habitats.
Improve plant growth
They help grow mushrooms present close to the tree trunk on the ground.
In addition, they take pieces of mushroom up to their nests for eating and drop a few chunks on the ground surface.
The plants obtain moisture from these dropped chunks that seep into the soil.
In the same way, plants and mushrooms have developed a symbiotic relationship in which both organisms provide benefits to each other.
The plants can get healthy minerals and good moisture content from fungal growth. However, the mushrooms get food from plants to eat and grow well.
However, they need both plants and mushrooms for survival; that’s why it plays a central role in the two and ultimately improves plant and mushroom growth.
Furthermore, trees provide shelter, and mushrooms give enough food to these furry animals and ensure their survival for longer.
What type of squirrels are keystone species?
Almost all types of squirrels play a crucial role in the ecosystem and hugely influence the food web as they are considered both predators and prey.
Moreover, the northern flying squirrels in the US are considered keystone species that play a crucial role in spreading ectomycorrhizal spores and improving their growth.
These fungi are found in symbiotic relations with shrubs and coniferous trees. The ecology of flying squirrels provides deep insights into the conservation and management of forests.
In addition, the California ground squirrels are also essential for the grasslands, oak trees, and savannas as they benefit the soil ecosystem.
Furthermore, the red squirrels consume pine cones and provide a good food source to other organisms by hiding the cones under the soil.